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Why Baha'i Universal Auxiliary Language Institutes

[1] It is incumbent upon the Trustees of the House of Justice to take counsel together regarding those things which have not outwardly been revealed in the Book, and to enforce that which is agreeable to them. God will verily inspire them with whatsoever He willeth, and He, verily, is the Provider, the Omniscient.     We have formerly ordained that people should converse in two languages, yet efforts must be made to reduce them to one, likewise the scripts of the world, that men's lives may not be dissipated and wasted in learning divers languages. Thus the whole earth would come to be regarded as one city and one land.    (eighth leaf in the Kalimat-i-Firdawsiyyih (Words of Paradise) in Tablets of Baha'u'llah, Page 68)  

[2] The utterances set forth therein by the Pen of the Lord of creation include the following which constitute the fundamental principles for the administration of the affairs of men:     First: It is incumbent upon the ministers of the House of Justice to promote the Lesser Peace so that the people of the earth may be relieved from the burden of exorbitant expenditures. This matter is imperative and absolutely essential, inasmuch as hostilities and conflict lie at the root of affliction and calamity.     Second: Languages must be reduced to one common language to be taught in all the schools of the world.   (Lawh-i-Dunya (Tablet of the World)   in Tablets of Baha'u'llah, Page 89)  

[3] The sixth Ishraq is union and concord amongst the children of men. From the beginning of time the light of unity hath shed its divine radiance upon the world, and the greatest means for the promotion of that unity is for the peoples of the world to understand one another's writing and speech. In former Epistles We have enjoined upon the Trustees of the House of Justice either to choose one language from among those now existing or to adopt a new one, and in like manner to select a common script, both of which should be taught in all the schools of the world. Thus will the earth be regarded as one country and one home. The most glorious fruit of the tree of knowledge is this exalted word: Of one tree are all ye the fruit, and of one bough the leaves. Let not man glory in this that he loveth his country, let him rather glory in this that he loveth his kind. Concerning this We have previously revealed that which is the means of the reconstruction of the world and the unity of nations. Blessed are they that attain thereunto. Blessed are they that act accordingly.     The seventh Ishraq The Pen of Glory counselleth everyone regarding the instruction and education of children. Behold that which the Will of God hath revealed upon Our arrival in the Prison City and recorded in the Most Holy Book. Unto every father hath been enjoined the instruction of his son and daughter in the art of reading and writing and in all that hath been laid down in the Holy Tablet. He that putteth away that which is commanded unto him, the Trustees are then to take from him that which is required for their instruction, if he be wealthy, and if not the matter devolveth upon the House of Justice. Verily, have We made it a shelter for the poor and needy. He that bringeth up his son or the son of another, it is as though he hath brought up a son of Mine; upon him rest My Glory, My Loving-Kindness, My Mercy, that have compassed the world.     The eighth Ishraq This passage, now written by the Pen of Glory, is accounted as part of the Most Holy Book: The men of God's House of Justice have been charged with the affairs of the people.   (Ishraqat (Splendours)   in Tablets of Baha'u'llah, Pages 127-128)  

[4] The third Glad-Tidings concerneth the study of divers languages. This decree hath formerly streamed forth from the Pen of the Most High: It behoveth the sovereigns of the world - may God assist them - or the ministers of the earth to take counsel together and to adopt one of the existing languages or a new one to be taught to children in schools throughout the world, and likewise one script. Thus the whole earth will come to be regarded as one country. Well is it with him who hearkeneth unto His Call and observeth that whereunto he is bidden by God, the Lord of the Mighty Throne.   (Bisharat (Glad-Tidings)   in Tablets of Baha'u'llah, Page 22)  

[5] Likewise He saith: Among the things which are conducive to unity and concord and will cause the whole earth to be regarded as one country is that the divers languages be reduced to one language and in like manner the scripts used in the world be confined to a single script. It is incumbent upon all nations to appoint some men of understanding and erudition to convene a gathering and through joint consultation choose one language from among the varied existing languages, or create a new one, to be taught to the children in all the schools of the world.   (Lawh-i-Maqsud (Tablet of Maqsud)   Tablets of Baha'u'llah, Pages 165-166)  

[6] The day is approaching when all the peoples of the world will have adopted one universal language and one common script. When this is achieved, to whatsoever city a man may journey, it shall be as if he were entering his own home. These things are obligatory and essential. It is incumbent upon every man of insight and understanding to strive to translate that which hath been written into reality and action.... That one indeed is a man who, today, dedicateth himself to the service of the entire human race. The Great Being saith: Blessed and happy is he that ariseth to promote the best interests of the peoples and kindreds of the earth. In another passage He hath proclaimed: It is not for him to pride himself who loveth his own country, but rather for him who loveth the whole world. The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens. The All-Knowing Physician hath His finger on the pulse of mankind. He perceiveth the disease, and prescribeth, in His unerring wisdom, the remedy. Every age hath its own problem, and every soul its particular aspiration. The remedy the world needeth in its present-day afflictions can never be the same as that which a subsequent age may require. Be anxiously concerned with the needs of the age ye live in, and centre your deliberations on its exigencies and requirements.   (Lawh-i-Maqsud (Tablet of Maqsud)   in Tablets of Baha'u'llah, Pages 166-167)   (also partially in The Proclamation of Baha'u'llah,   Pages 249-250)  

[7] Our conversation turned to topics profitable to man. He said that he had learned several languages. In reply We observed: "You have wasted your life. It beseemeth you and the other officials of the Government to convene a gathering and choose one of the divers languages, and likewise one of the existing scripts, or else to create a new language and a new script to be taught children in schools throughout the world. They would, in this way, be acquiring only two languages, one their own native tongue, the other the language in which all the peoples of the world would converse. Were men to take fast hold on that which hath been mentioned, the whole earth would come to be regarded as one country, and the people would be relieved and freed from the necessity of acquiring and teaching different languages." When in Our presence, he acquiesced, and even evinced great joy and complete satisfaction. We then told him to lay this matter before the officials and ministers of the Government, in order that it might be put into effect throughout the different countries. However, although he often returned to see Us after this, he never again referred to this subject, although that which had been suggested is conducive to the concord and the unity of the peoples of the world.     We fain would hope that the Persian Government will adopt it and carry it out. At present, a new language and a new script have been devised. If thou desirest, We will communicate them to thee. Our purpose is that all men may cleave unto that which will reduce unnecessary labor and exertion, so that their days may be befittingly spent and ended. God, verily, is the Helper, the Knower, the Ordainer, the Omniscient.   (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, Pages 137-139)  

[8] 189. O members of parliaments throughout the world! Select ye a single language for the use of all on earth, and adopt ye likewise a common script. God, verily, maketh plain for you that which shall profit you and enable you to be independent of others. He, of a truth, is the Most Bountiful, the All-Knowing, the AllInformed. This will be the cause of unity, could ye but comprehend it, and the greatest instrument for promoting harmony and civilization, would that ye might understand! We have appointed two signs for the coming of age of the human race: the first, which is the most firm foundation, We have set down in other of Our Tablets, while the second hath been revealed in this wondrous Book. (The Kitab-i-Aqdas, Page 88)  

[9] 9. The selection of a single language and the adoption of a common script for all on earth to use: one of two signs of the maturity of the human race (Notes: The Kitab-i-Aqdas, Page 163)  

[10]194. We have appointed two signs for the coming of age of the human race :PP189   The first sign of the coming of age of humanity referred to in the Writings of Baha'u'llah is the emergence of a science which is described as that "divine philosophy" which will include the discovery of a radical approach to the transmutation of elements. This is an indication of the splendours of the future stupendous expansion of knowledge.     Concerning the "second" sign which Baha'u'llah indicates to have been revealed in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, Shoghi Effendi states that Baha'u'llah, ". . . in His Most Holy Book, has enjoined the selection of a single language and the adoption of a common script for all on earth to use, an injunction which, when carried out, would, as He Himself affirms in that Book, be one of the signs of the 'coming of age of the human race'". .. (Notes: The Kitab-i-Aqdas, Page 250)  

[11]118. The Lord hath granted leave to whosoever desireth it that he be instructed in the divers tongues of the world that he may deliver the Message of the Cause of God throughout the East and throughout the West, that he make mention of Him amidst the kindreds and peoples of the world in such wise that hearts may revive and the mouldering bone be quickened.   (The Kitab-i-Aqdas, Page 62)  

[12] Moreover such forms and modes of writing as are now current amongst men were unknown to the generations that were before Adam. There was even a time when men were wholly ignorant of the art of writing, and had adopted a system entirely different from the one which they now use. For a proper exposition of this an elaborate explanation would be required.     Consider the differences that have arisen since the days of Adam. The divers and widely-known languages now spoken by the peoples of the earth were originally unknown, as were the varied rules and customs now prevailing amongst them. The people of those times spoke a language different from those now known. Diversities of language arose in a later age, in a land known as Babel. It was given the name Babel, because the term signifieth "the place where the confusion of tongues arose."     Subsequently Syriac became prominent among the existing languages. The Sacred Scriptures of former times were revealed in that tongue. Later, Abraham, the Friend of God, appeared and shed upon the world the light of Divine Revelation. The language He spoke while He crossed the Jordan became known as Hebrew ('Ibrani), which meaneth "the language of the crossing." The Books of God and the Sacred Scriptures were then revealed in that tongue, and not until after a considerable lapse of time did Arabic become the language of Revelation...     Witness, therefore, how numerous and far-reaching have been the changes in language, speech, and writing since the days of Adam. How much greater must have been the changes before Him!   (Gleanings, Pages 172-174)  

[13] Mirza Aqa Jan further related to Nabil that, one day in Kazimayn, when both he and Aqa Muhammad-Hasan-i-Isfahani were in the presence of Baha'u'llah, in the house of Haji 'Abdu'l-Majid-i-Shirazi, He asked the host whether he wished to hear the Badi' (Unique) language, which, He said, was the language used by the denizens of one of the worlds of God. He then proceeded to chant in that language. Mirza Aqa Jan said that hearing this language had a wonderful effect on the listener. One day, Mirza Aqa Jan related, Baha'u'llah said to Haji 'Abdu'l-Majid: 'Haji, you have heard the Badi' language, and witnessed God's supremacy over His worlds. Render thanks for this bounty and appreciate its worth.'   (Baha'u'llah, The King of Glory, Page 113-114)  

[14] The sixth is the universal auxiliary language.   ('Abdu'l-Baha on Divine Philosophy, Page 25)  

[15] 6. A UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE A universal language shall be adopted and taught in the schools and academies of the world. A committee appointed by national bodies shall select a suitable language to be used as a means of international communication. Every one will need but two languages, his national tongue and the universal language. All will acquire the international language. ( 'Abdu'l-Baha on Divine Philosophy, Page 27)  

[16] "In order to facilitate complete understanding between all people, a universal auxiliary language will be adopted and in the schools of the future two languages will be taught--the mother tongue and this international auxiliary tongue which will be either one of the existing languages, or a new language made up of words from all the languages--the matter to be determined by a confederation met for the purpose which shall represent all tribes and nations. This international tongue will be used in the work of the parliament of man--a supreme tribunal of the world which will be permanently established in order to arbitrate international questions. .   ( 'Abdu'l-Baha on Divine Philosophy, Page 84)  

[17] His Excellency ABDUL BAHA, addressed the Paris Esperanto group on February 12, 1913, at a banquet which was accorded him at the Hotel Moderne in that city. M. Bourlet, President of the Paris Esperanto Society, in introducing Abdul Baha, said that one of the principles of the great world religion which he was promulgating, was the establishment of a universal language.   ( 'Abdu'l-Baha on Divine Philosophy, Page 141)  

[18] The universal light for this planet is from the sun and the special electric ray which to-night illumines this banquet hall appears through the invention of man. In like manner the activities which are trying to establish solidarity between the nations and infuse the spirit of universalism in the hearts of the children of men are like unto divine rays from the sun of reality and the brightest ray is the coming of the universal language. Its achievement is the greatest virtue of the age for such an instrument will remove misunderstandings from amongst the peoples of the earth and will cement their hearts together. This medium will enable each individual member of the human family to be informed of the scientific accomplishments of all.     The basis of knowledge and the excellencies of endeavor in this world are to teach and to be taught. To acquire sciences, and to teach them in turn, depends upon language, and when the international auxiliary tongue becomes universal it is easily conceivable that the acquirement of knowledge and instruction will likewise become universal.     No doubt you are aware that in the past ages a common languageshared by various nations created a spirit of solidarity amongst them. For instance, thirteen hundred years ago there were many divergent nationalities in the Orient. There were Copts in Egypt, Syrians in Syria, Assyrians and Babylonians in Bagdad and along the rivers of Mesopotamia. There existed among these peoples rank hatred; but as they were gradually brought nearer through common protection and common interests, the Arabic language grew to be the means of intercommunication and they became as one nation. They all speak Arabic to this day. In Syria, if you ask any one of them, he will say, "I am an Arab," though he be a Greek, an Egyptian, Syrian or Jew.Today one of the chief causes of the differences in Europe is the diversity of languages.     We say "this man is a German, the other an Italian, a Frenchman, an Englishman," etc. All belong to the great human family yet language is the barrier between them. The greatest working basis for bringing about unity and harmony amongst the nations is the teaching of a universal tongue. Writing on this subject fifty years ago, His Holiness BAHA'O'LLAH declared that complete union between the various nations of the world would remain an unrealized dream until an international language was established.     Misunderstandings keep people from mutual association and these misunderstandings will not be dispelled except through the medium of a common ground of communication. Every intelligent man will bear testimony to this.     The people of the Orient are not fully informed of the events in the west and the west cannot put itself into sympathetic touch with the east.     Their thoughts are enclosed in a casket. The universal language will be the master key to open it. Western books will be translated into that language and the east will become informed of the contents; likewise eastern lore will become the property of the west. Thus also will those misunderstandings which exist between the different religions be dispersed. Religious prejudices play havoc among the peoples and bring about warfare and strife and it is impossible to remove them without a common medium.     I am an Oriental and on this account I am shut out from your thoughts and you likewise from mine. A mutual language will become the mightiest means toward universal progress, for it will cement the east and the west. It will make the world one home and become the divine impulse for human advancement. It will upraise the standard of oneness of the world of humanity and make the earth a universal commonwealth.     It will create love between the children of men and good fellowship between the various creeds. Praise be to God, that Dr. Zamenhof has constructed the Esperanto language. It has all the potential qualities of universal adoption. All of us must be grateful and thankful to him for his noble effort, for in this matter he has served his fellow-man well. He has done a service which will bestow divine benefits on all peoples. With untiring effort and self-sacrifice on the part of its devotees it holds a promise of universal acceptation. Therefore every one of us must study this language and make every effort to spread it, so that each day it may receive a wider recognition, be accepted by all nations and governments of the world and become a part of the curriculum of all the public schools. I hope that the business of the future international conferences and congresses will be carried on in Esperanto. In the coming ages, two languages will be taught in the schools, one the native tongue, the other an international auxiliary language. Consider today how difficult is human communication. One may study fifty languages and travel through a country and still be at a loss. I myself speak several Oriental languages, but know no western tongue. Had this universal language pervaded the globe, I should have studied it and you would have been directly informed of my thoughts and I of yours and a special friendship would have been established between us. Please send some teachers to Persia so that they may teach Esperanto to the younger generation. I have written asking some of them to come here to study it. May it be promulgated rapidly; then the world of humanity will find eternal peace; all the nations will associate with one another like mothers and sisters, fathers and brothers, and each individual member of the community will be fully informed of the thoughts of all. I am extremely grateful to you and thank you for these lofty efforts, for you have gathered at this banquet in a selfless endeavor to further this great end. Your hope is to render a mighty service to the world of humanity and for this exalted aim I congratulate you from the depths of my heart.   ( 'Abdu'l-Baha on Divine Philosophy, Pages 143-145)  

[19] One sign of unity is the construction of an international auxiliary language, Esperanto. Let us strive untiringly to spread this language.   ( 'Abdu'l-Baha on Divine Philosophy, Page 172)  

[20] The seventh candle is unity of language, i.e., the choice of a universal tongue in which all peoples will be instructed and converse. Each and every one of these will inevitably come to pass, inasmuch as the power of the Kingdom of God will aid and assist in their realization.   (Selections From The Writings of 'Abdu'l-Baha, Page 32)   (also in The World Order of Baha'u'llah, Page 39:2)  

[21] Regarding the translation of the Books and Tablets of the Blessed Beauty, ere long will translations be made into every tongue, with power, clarity and grace. At such time as they are translated, conformably to the originals, and with power and grace of style, the splendours of their inner meanings will be shed abroad, and will illumine the eyes of all mankind. Do thy very best to ensure that the translation is in conformity with the original.   (Selections From The Writings of 'Abdu'l-Baha, Page 66)  

[22] And among the teachings of His Holiness Baha'u'llah is the origination of one language that may be spread universally among the people. This teaching was revealed from the pen of Baha'u'llah in order that this universal language may eliminate misunderstandings from among mankind.   (Selections From The Writings of 'Abdu'l-Baha, Page 301)   (also in Foundations of World Unity, Page 29:4)  

[23] As to the Esperantists, associate with them. ... It is evident that the Esperantists are receptive and thou art familiar with and expert in their language. Communicate also with the Esperantists of Germany and other places. The literature which thou circulatest should deal only with the teachings. The dissemination of other literature is at present not advisable. My hope is that the divine confirmations may continually assist thee....   Grieve not over the apathy and coldness of the Hague meeting. Put thy trust in God. Our hope is that among the people the Esperanto language may hereafter have a powerful effect. Thou hast now sown the seed. Assuredly it will grow. Its growth dependeth upon God.   (Selections From The Writings of 'Abdu'l-Baha, Page 308:2)  

[24] One of the great steps towards universal peace would be the establishment of a universal language. Baha'u'llah commands that the servants of humanity should meet together, and either choose a language which now exists, or form a new one. This was revealed in the Kitab-i-Aqdas forty years ago. It is there pointed out that the question of diversity of tongues is a very difficult one. There are more than eight hundred languages in the world, and no person could acquire them all.     The races of mankind are not isolated as in former days. Now, in order to be in close relationship with all countries it is necessary to be able to speak their tongues. A universal language would make intercourse possible with every nation. Thus it would be needful to know two languages only, the mother tongue and the universal speech. The latter would enable a man to communicate with any and every man in the world! A third language would not be needed. To be able to talk with a member of any race and country without requiring an interpreter, how helpful and restful to all! Esperanto has been drawn up with this end in view: it is a fine invention and a splendid piece of work, but it needs perfecting. Esperanto as it stands is very difficult for some people.     An international Congress should be formed, consisting of delegates from every nation in the world, Eastern as well as Western. This Congress should form a language that could be acquired by all, and every country would thereby reap great benefit. Until such a language is in use, the world will continue to feel the vast need of this means of intercourse. Difference of speech is one of the most fruitful causes of dislike and distrust that exists between nations, which are kept apart by their inability to understand each other's language more than by any other reason. If everybody could speak one language, how much more easy would it be to serve humanity! Therefore appreciate 'Esperanto', for it is the beginning of the carrying out of one of the most important of the Laws of Baha'u'llah, and it must continue to be improved and perfected.   (Paris Talks, Pages 155:3-157:1)  

[25] The causes of dispute among different nations are always due to one of the following classes of prejudice: racial, lingual, theological, personal, and prejudices of custom and tradition.... The differences in language cause disunion between nations. There must be one universal language.   (Abdu'l-Baha in London, Page 60)  

[26] A friend enquired concerning Baha'u'llah's prophecy in the Words of Paradise, that a universal language would be formed, and desired to know if Esperanto would be the language chosen. "The love and effort put into Esperanto will not be lost," he answered, "but no one person can construct a Universal Language. It must be made by a Council representing all countries, and must contain words from different languages. It will be governed by the simplest rules, and there will be no exceptions; neither will there be gender, nor extra and silent letters. Everything indicated will have but one name. In Arabic there are hundreds of names for the camel! In the schools of each nation the mother tongue will be taught, as well as the revised Universal Language." ( 'Abdu'l-Baha in London, Page 94)  

[27] TODAY the greatest need of the world of humanity is discontinuance of the existing misunderstandings among nations. This can be accomplished through the unity of language. Unless the unity of languages is realized, the Most Great Peace and the oneness of the human world cannot be effectively organized and established because the function of language is to portray the mysteries and secrets of human hearts. The heart is like a box, and language is the key. Only by using the key can we open the box and observe the gems it contains. Therefore, the question of an auxiliary international tongue has the utmost importance. Through this means international education and training become possible; the evidence and history of the past can be acquired. The spread of the known facts of the human world depends upon language. The explanation of divine teachings can only be through this medium. As long as diversity of tongues and lack of comprehension of other languages continue, these glorious aims cannot be realized. Therefore, the very first service to the world of man is to establish this auxiliary international means of communication. It will become the cause of the tranquility of the human commonwealth. Through it sciences and arts will be spread among the nations, and it will prove to be the means of the progress and development of all races. We must endeavor with all our powers to establish this international auxiliary language throughout the world. It is my hope that it may be perfected through the bounties of God and that intelligent men may be selected from the various countries of the world to organize an international congress whose chief aim will be the promotion of this universal medium of speech.   (The Promulgation of Universal Peace, Pages 60-61)   (also partially in #1138 Lights of Guidance, Page 340)  

[28] Eighth, education is essential, and all standards of training and teaching throughout the world of mankind should be brought into conformity and agreement; a universal curriculum should be established, and the basis of ethics be the same. Ninth, a universal language shall be adopted and be taught by all the schools and institutions of the world. A committee appointed by national bodies of learning shall select a suitable language to be used as a medium of international communication. All must acquire it. This is one of the great factors in the unification of man.   (The Promulgation of Universal Peace, Page 182)  

[29] Diversity of languages has been a fruitful cause of discord. The function of language is to convey the thought and purpose of one to another. Therefore, it matters not what language man speaks or employs. Sixty years ago Baha'u'llah advocated one language as the greatest means of unity and the basis of international conference. He wrote to the kings and rulers of the various nations, recommending that one language should be sanctioned and adopted by all governments. According to this each nation should acquire the universal language in addition to its native tongue. The world would then be in close communication, consultation would become general, and dissensions due to diversity of speech would be removed.   (The Promulgation of Universal Peace, Page 232)  

[30] Baha'u'llah has proclaimed the adoption of a universal language. A language shall be agreed upon by which unity will be established in the world. Each person will require training in two languages: his native tongue and the universal auxiliary form of speech. This will facilitate intercommunication and dispel the misunderstandings which the barriers of language have occasioned in the world. All people worship the same God and are alike His servants. When they are able to communicate freely, they will associate in friendship and concord, entertain the greatest love and fellowship for each other, and in reality the Orient and Occident will embrace in unity and agreement. The world is in greatest need of international peace. Until it is established, mankind will not attain composure and tranquility.   (The Promulgation of Universal Peace, Page 300)  

[31] Eleventh, one language must be selected as an international medium of speech and communication. Through this means misunderstandings will be lessened, fellowship established and unity assured. These are a few of the principles proclaimed by Baha'u'llah. He has provided the remedy for the ailments which now afflict the human world, solved the difficult problems of individual, social, national and universal welfare and laid the foundation of divine reality upon which material and spiritual civilization are to be founded throughout the centuries before us. Praise be to God ! I find these two great American nations highly capable and advanced in all that appertains to progress and civilization. These governments are fair and equitable. The motives and purposes of these people are lofty and inspiring. Therefore, it is my hope that these revered nations may become prominent factors in the establishment of international peace and the oneness of the world of humanity; that they may lay the foundations of equality and spiritual brotherhood among mankind; that they may manifest the highest virtues of the human world, revere the divine lights of the Prophets of God and establish the reality of unity so necessary today in the affairs of nations. (The Promulgation of Universal Peace, Page 318)  

[32] Baha'u'llah has announced the necessity for a universal language which shall serve as a means of International communication and thus remove misunderstandings and difficulties. This teaching is set forth in the Kitab-i-Aqdas ("Most Holy Book") published fifty years ago. He has also proclaimed the principle that all mankind shall be educated and that no illiteracy be allowed to remain. This practical remedy for the need of the world cannot be found in the text of any other sacred Books. He teaches that it is incumbent upon all mankind to become fitted for some useful trade, craft or profession by which subsistence may be assured, and this efficiency is to be considered as an act of worship. The teachings of Baha'u'llah are boundless and without end in their far-reaching benefit to mankind. The point and purpose of our statement today is that they are new and that they are not found in any of the religious Books of the past. This is in answer to the question, "What has Baha'u'llah brought that we have not heard before?" Therefore, it is conclusive and evident that the Manifestation of God in this day is distinguished from all former appearances and revelations by His majesty, His power and the efficacy and application of His Word.   (The Promulgation of Universal Peace, Page 434)  

[33] His teachings. which embody the divine spirit of the age and are applicable to this period of maturity in the life of the human world, are: The oneness of the world of humanity The protection and guidance of the Holy Spirit The foundation of all religion is one Religion must be the cause of unity Religion must accord with science and reason Independent investigation of truth Equality between men and women The abandoning of all prejudices among mankind Universal peace Universal education A universal language Solution of the economic problem An international tribunal. Everyone who truly seeks and justly reflects will admit that the teachings of the present day emanating from mere human sources and authority are the cause of difficulty and disagreement amongst mankind, the very destroyers of humanity, whereas the teachings of Baha'u'llah are the very healing of the sick world, the remedy for every need and condition. In them may be found the realization of every desire and aspiration, the cause of the happiness of the world of humanity, the stimulus and illumination of mentality, the impulse for advancement and uplift, the basis of unity for all nations, the fountain source of love amongst mankind, the center of agreement, the means of peace and harmony, the one bond which will unite the East and the West. After every night there is a morn. (The Promulgation of Universal Peace, Page 440)  

[34] Religion must be the cause of unity.   Religion must accord with science and reason.   Independent investigation of truth.   Equality between men and women.   The abandoning of all prejudices among mankind.   Universal peace.   Universal education.   A universal language.   Solution of the economic problem.   An international tribunal.   ('Abdu'l-Baha, HMB, Page 330)  

[35] 'Abdu'l-Baha's address was chiefly concerned with an auxiliary international language. Sir Patrick Geddes spoke afterwards to propose a vote of thanks.   ('Abdu'l-Baha, HMB Page 364)  

[36] Verily, I pray my Lord to teach thee a language and writing of the Kingdom which will satisfy thee, so as to dispense with all things; for that spiritual writing and instructive tongue are eloquent, clear, laudable, legible, read by the tongue and preserved in the heart. Blessed is he who knows it in the world of man!   (Tablet of Abdu'l-Baha to Mr. Kanithi Yamamoto January 1903 in Japan Will Turn Ablaze! Page 14)  ( also in Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Baha Abbas, Vol. III Page 559)  

[37] Endeavor as much as thou canst to acquire the English language with the utmost eloquence and excellence, so that thou mayest be enabled to translate the Tablets into the Japanese tongue. This is my advice. Certainly exert thy utmost endeavor to attain this bounty.   (To Kanichi Yamamoto, Date not known   in Japan Will Turn Ablaze! Page 16)  

[38] The Japanese youth, K. Yamamoto ... must acquire the English language well, so as to enable him to translate the Divine Tablets into the Japanese language.   (To Mrs. J. D. Brittingham, October 18, 1906   in Japan Will Turn Ablaze! Page 17)  

[39] Thou hast taken much pain in inventing the new Japanese writing. Thou hast rendered a service to the world of humanity -- May God reward thee!     Today, however, there exist many kinds of writing. That which is more necessary and is assisted by divine confirmations is the propagation of the heavenly Call. It is this which bestoweth life unto the dead souls, which refresheth the dried tree and ornamenteth it with leaves, blossoms and fruits. Concentrate all thine energy in this that thou mayest make heavenly progress, that thou mayest attain to the light of the Sun of Reality... This is most important!   (To Sensui Saiki, October 15, 1920   in Japan Will Turn Ablaze! Page 30)  

[40] "Acquire the Persian tongue, so as to learn of the meanings of the Divine words and to know the Divine mysteries, to develop an eloquent speech and to translate the blessed Tablets of Baha'u'llah. The Persian language shall become noteworthy in this cycle; nay, rather, the people shall study it in all the world." (Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Baha, Vol. II, Page 306)   (also in Lights of Guidance, Page 340-341)  

[41] Questions not treated of are left to the civil law of each country, and to the decisions of the Bait-ul-Adl, or House of Justice, instituted by Baha'o'llah. Respect toward the head of the State is part of respect toward God. A universal language, and the creation of tribunals of arbitration between nations, are to suppress wars. "You are all leaves of the same tree, and drops of the same sea," Baha'o'llah has said. Briefly, it is not so much a new religion as Religion renewed and unified, which is directed today by Abdul-Baha.--   (quoted from Nouveau Larousse Illustre, supplement, p. 66   in Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Baha Abbas, Vol. I. Page viii)  

[42] But regarding the universal language: Ere long significant and scientific discussions concerning this matter will arise among the people of discernment and insight and it will produce the desired result.   (Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Baha Vol. III Page 596)  

[43] "Thou hast written regarding to language of Esperanto. This language will be spread and universalized to a certain degree, but later on a language more complete than this, or the same language will undergo some changes and alterations and will be adopted and become universal. I hope that Dr, Zamenhof, become assisted by the invisible connfirmation and do a great service to the world of humanity."   (Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Baha, Vol. III Page. 692)  

[44] Some of the weightiest passages of His Epistle to Queen Victoria are addressed to the members of the British Legislature, the Mother of Parliaments, as well as to the elected representatives of the peoples in other lands. In these He asserts that His purpose is to quicken the world and unite its peoples; refers to the treatment meted out to Him by His enemies; exhorts the legislators to "take counsel together," and to concern themselves only "with that which profiteth mankind"; and affirms that the "sovereign remedy" for the "healing of all the world" is the "union of all its peoples in one universal Cause, one common Faith,' which can "in no wise be achieved except through the power of a skilled and all-powerful and inspired Physician." He, moreover, in His Most Holy Book, has enjoined the selection of a single language and the adoption of a common script for all on earth to use, an injunction which, when carried out, would, as He Himself affirms in that Book, be one of the signs of the "coming of age of the human race."   (God Passes By, Page 211)  

[45] The significant summons issued to the Presidents of the Republics of the American continent to seize their opportunity in the Day of God and to champion the cause of justice; the injunction to the members of parliaments throughout the world, urging the adoption of a universal script and language;   (God Passes By, Page 215:1) (The Kitab-i-Aqdas, Page 15)   (King of Glory, by HMB Page 352)  

[46] The injunction to "consort with all men in a spirit of friendliness and fellowship" He further emphasizes, and recognizes such association to be conducive to "union and concord," which, He affirms, are the establishers of order in the world and the quickeners of nations. The necessity of adopting a universal tongue and script He repeatedly stresses; deplores the waste of time involved in the study of divers languages; affirms that with the adoption of such a language and script the whole earth will be considered as "one city and one land"; and claims to be possessed to the knowledge of both, and ready to impart it to any one who might seek it from Him.     To the trustees of the House of Justice He assigns the duty of legislating on matters not expressly provided in His writings, and promises that God will "inspire them with whatsoever He willeth." (God Passes By, Pages 218:3-219)  

[47] ... that `Abdu'l-Baha expounded, with brilliant simplicity, with persuasiveness and force, and for the first time in His ministry, those basic and distinguishing principles of His Father's Faith, which together with the laws and ordinances revealed in the Kitab-i-Aqdas constitute the bed-rock of God's latest Revelation to mankind. ...the adoption of a universal auxiliary language; (God Passes By, Page 281:1)  

[48] The mere enumeration of the national committees which, originating mostly in the West and functioning with exemplary efficiency in the United States and Canada, now carry on their activities with a vigor and a unity of purpose which sharply contrast with the effete institutions of a moribund civilization, would suffice to reveal the scope of these auxiliary institutions which an evolving Administrative Order, still in the secondary stage of its development, has set in motion:... the International Auxiliary Language Committee;   (God Passes By, Pages 333:1-334)  

[49] They include, moreover, "study days" held in Baha'i homes and centers, classes for the study of Esperanto and other languages, ... (God Passes By, Page 341:1)  

[50] In 1920," is the declaration made in his testament by the distinguished Swiss scientist and psychiatrist, Doctor Auguste Forel, "I learned at Karlsruhe of the supraconfessional world religion of the Baha'is founded in the Orient seventy years ago by a Persian, Baha'u'llah. This is the real religion of 'Social Welfare' without dogmas or priests, binding together all men of this small terrestrial globe of ours. I have become a Baha'i. May this religion live and prosper for the good of humanity! This is my most ardent desire." "There is bound to be a world state, a universal language, and a universal religion," he, moreover has stated, "The Baha'i Movement for the oneness of mankind is, in my estimation, the greatest movement today working for universal peace and brotherhood."   (God Passes By, Page 375:2)  

[51] This Faith, Shoghi Effendi wrote, "does not ignore, nor does it attempt to suppress, the diversity of ethnical origins, of climate, of history, of language and tradition, of thought and habit, that differentiate the peoples and nations of the world." (The World Order of Baha'u'llah, Page 41:3)  

[52] It calls for no less than the reconstruction and the demilitarization of the whole civilized world--a world organically unified in all the essential aspects of its life, its political machinery, its spiritual aspiration, its trade and finance, its script and language, and yet infinite in the diversity of the national characteristics of its federated units.     It represents the consummation of human evolution--an evolution that has had its earliest beginnings in the birth of family life, its subsequent development in the achievement of tribal solidarity, leading in turn to the constitution of the city-state, and expanding later into the institution of independent and sovereign nations.   (The World Order of Baha'u'llah, Page 43:1-2)  

[53] A world metropolis will act as the nerve center of a world civilization, the focus towards which the unifying forces of life will converge and from which its energizing influences will radiate. A world language will either be invented or chosen from among the existing languages and will be taught in the schools of all the federated nations as an auxiliary to their mother tongue. A world script, a world literature, a uniform and universal system of currency, of weights and measures, will simplify and facilitate intercourse and understanding among the nations and races of mankind. In such a world society,   (The World Order of Baha'u'llah, Page 203)  

[54] As to your suggestion regarding a more widespread use of the Esperanto among the Baha'is as a medium of correspondence. Shoghi Effendi, as you know, has been invariably encouraging the believers, both in the East and in the West, to make an intensive study of that language, and to consider it as an important medium for the spread of the Cause in international circles. He has been specially urging the friends to have the Cause well represented in all Esperanto Congresses and associations, and by this means cultivate greater friendship and cooperation between them and the Esperantists. But in this connection, he feels, he must make it clear that although the Cause views with much sympathy and appreciation the activities which the Esperantists are increasingly initiating for the spread of their language, yet it considers that the adoption of the Esperanto by the entire world is by no means an inevitable fact. Neither Baha'u'llah, nor even 'Abdu'l-Baha, ever stated that Esperanto will be the international auxiliary language. The Master simply expressed the hope that it may, provided certain conditions were fulfilled, develop into such a medium. 24 December 1935 ( Lights of Divine Guidance, Vol 2 Pages 36-37)    

[55] #1140. "Regarding the subject of Esperanto; it should be made clear to the believers that while the teaching of that language has been repeatedly encouraged by 'Abdu'l-Baha, there is no reference either from Him or from Baha'u'llah that can make us believe that it will necessarily develop into the international auxiliary language of the future. Baha'u'llah has specified in His writing that such a language will have either to be chosen from one of the existing languages, or an entirely new one should be created to serve as a medium of exchange between nations and peoples of the world. Pending this final choice, the Baha'is are advised to study Esperanto only in consideration of the fact that the learning of this language can facilitate inter-communication between individuals, groups and Assemblies throughout the Baha'i world in the present stage of the evolution of the Faith."  (From letter written on behalf of the Guardian to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada, June 4, 1937: Baha'i News, No. 109, July 1937, Page. 1) (republished in Lights of Guidance, Page 341)  

[56] #2033. The Teacher Should Use Whatever Method of Expression That Will Attract the Listener   "English is, compared to Latin and oriental languages, lacking (as spoken in daily use) in flowery terms, and the Guardian feels that in teaching you should always use whatever method will most attract your hearers. If such term as 'The Glory of god' are not suited to certain individuals' mentality you should refrain from using them until they draw really close to the spirit of the Cause. The teaching is of primary, the words of secondary importance."   (From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi   to an individual believer, January 23, 1945)   (Lights of Guidance, Pages 600-601)  

[57] #1141. The Present Need of An Auxiliary Language   "What Baha'u'llah is referring to in the Eighth Leaf of the Exalted Paradise is a far distant time, when the world is really one country, and one language would be a sensible possibility. It does not contradict His instruction as to the need immediately for an auxiliary language.   (From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi   to an individual believer, March 16, 1946)   (Lights of Guidance, Page 341 )  

[58] 29 July 1946 - He feels that the subject of the Baha'i work in Esperanto in Germany is a matter for you to take up with the National Spiritual Assembly; we Baha'is do not claim Esperanto will be the auxiliary language of the future--but as we firmly believe in the necessity of an auxiliary language we are glad to support this work by publishing books in Esperanto and encouraging the Baha'is to learn it, if they wish to. Cooperation with this society is an excellent means of spreading the Cause, as Martha Root demonstrated in her travels. However, all details in this matter must be decided by the N.S.A. You can contact Baha'i Esperantists in England and the U.S.A. through their respective N.S.A.s.   (to Dr. Hermann Grossmann 29 July 1946,   in Lights of Divine Guidance, Vol 2 Page 53)  

[59] He would not advise you to teach them Esperanto, as we have no way of knowing whether it will ultimately be chosen as the auxiliary language of the world. He thinks the most direct and quickest way of communicating with them in a common tongue should be chosen; in other words either you should learn their language or they yours, whichever will yield the quickest results.   (a letter dated December 12, 1942) (High Endeavors, Page 6)  

[60] There followed another long pause, then the Master turned again to me and said: "At the present time the British Empire is the greatest and is still expanding and its language is a world language. (The Priceless Pearl, Page 12)  

[61] From his Beirut days until practically the end of his life Shoghi Effendi had the habit of writing vocabularies and typical English phrases in notebooks. Hundreds of words and sentences have been recorded and these clearly indicate the years of careful study and he put into mastering a language he loved and revelled in. For him there was no second to English. He was a great reader of King James version of the Bible, and of the historians Carlyle and Gibbon, whose style he greatly admired, particularly that of Gibbon whose Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Shoghi Effendi was so fond of that I never remember his not having a volume of it near him in his small room and usually with him when he travelled. There was a small Everyman's copy of part of it next to his bed when he died. It was his own pet bible of the English language and often he would read to me excerpts from it, interrupting himself with exclamations such as "Oh what style; what a command of English; what rolling sentences; listen to this." With his beautiful voice and pronunciation - in the direction of what we call an "Oxford accent", but no exaggeratedly so - the words fairly glowed with colour and their value and meaning came out like shining jewels.   (The Priceless Pearl, Page 37-38)   Also partly in (The Guardian, Page 12)  

[62] In addition to this he devoted much attention, during the early years of his Guardianship, when Esperanto was rapidly spreading, particularly in Europe, to encouraging the publication of a Baha'i Esperanto Gazette, explaining to its editor that his interest was due to "my great desire to promote in such parts of the Baha'i world as present circumstances permit the study of an international language".   (The Priceless Pearl, Page 207)  

[63] In addition to these personal relationships Shoghi Effendi had far more contact with certain non-Baha'i organizations than is commonly supposed. This was particularly true of the Esperantists, whose whole object was to bring about the fulfilment of the Baha'i principle that a universal auxiliary language must be adopted in the interests of World Peace. We have copies of his personal messages to the Universal Congress of Esperantists held in 1927,1928,1929, 1930 and 1931, and he no doubt sent many messages of a similar nature at other times. Shoghi Effendi not only responded warmly when there was any overture made to him, but often took the initiative himself in sending Baha'i representatives, chosen by him, to various conferences whose interests coincided with those of the Baha'is. We thus find him writing to the Universal Esperantist Association, in 1927, that Martha Root and Julia Goldman will attend their Danzig Congress as official Baha'i representatives, and that he trusts "will serve to strengthen the ties of fellowship that bind the Esperantists and the followers of Baha'u'llah, one of whose cardinal principles . . . is the adoption of an international auxiliary language for all humanity." In his letter addressed to the delegates and friends attending this nineteenth Universal Congress of Esperantists he writes:     My dear fellow workers in the service of humanity, I take great pleasure in addressing you and wishing you . . . from all my heart the fullest success in the work you are doing for the promotion of the good of humanity. It will interest you, I am sure, to learn that as the result of the repeated and emphatic admonitions of 'Abdu'l-Baha His many followers even in the most distant villages and hamlets of Persia, where the light of Western civilization has hardly penetrated as yet, as well as in other lands throughout the East, are strenuously and enthusiastically engaged in the study and teaching of Esperanto, for whose future they cherish the highest hopes . . .   (The Priceless Pearl, Pages 271-272)   also in (The Guardian, Pages 124-125)  

[64] A fundamental lack of communication between peoples seriously undermines efforts towards world peace. Adopting an international auxiliary language would go far to resolving this problem and necessitates the most urgent attention.   (The Promise of World Peace, Page 106)  

[65] In keeping with the requirements of the times, consideration should also be given to teaching the concept of world citizenship as part of the standard education of every child. (The Promise of World Peace, Page 102)  

[66] Two points bear emphasizing in all these issues. One is that the abolition of war is not simply a matter of signing treaties and protocols; it is a complex task requiring a new level of commitment to resolving issues not customarily associated with the pursuit of peace.   (The Promise of World Peace, Page 110)  

[67] One out of every five adult Americans is functionally illiterate, meaning that they cannot read newspapers, recipes or fill out job applications. There are literacy councils and community colleges which will send literacy teachers to classes organized by the Baha'is.   (Developing Distinctive Baha'i Communities, Pages 13.15-14.1)  

[68] #348 ... "Baha'i authors may submit their works for review to any National Spiritual Assembly, and may send their works, once approved, to any publisher they like, Baha'i or non-Baha'i, at home or abroad. It should be remembered, however, that the approval should be given by the National Spiritual Assembly of the country where the work is to be first published. And in the case of a nonBaha'i publisher the author should insist on use of the system of transliteration at present used by the Faith for languages employing the Roman alphabet. "It is hoped that Baha'i authors will provide a constant stream of new works. Introductory books, commentaries, dissertations on various aspects of the Revelation, text books, histories, reviews, audio-visual material are all needed to stimulate study of the Faith and to promote the vital teaching work."  (The Universal House of Justice: From Memorandum on Baha'i Publishing -- Ridvan 1971) (Lights of Guidance, Page 101)  

[69] The Universal House of Justice, in response to your letter of 20 April concerning translations into French or Creole using simpler words than the original text, has requested us to send the following three quotations. These make it clear that a quotation in English may be rendered into simple English in order to facilitate its translation into another language or dialect. However, it is not permissible to publish simplifications and paraphrased extracts of Baha'i Writings as Baha'i Scripture.     "We have noticed a tendency in a number of countries to attempt to translate Baha'i literature into the current, easy, everyday language of the country. This, however, should not be an overriding consideration. Many of the Tablets of Baha'u'llah and 'Abdu'l-Baha are in exalted and highly poetic language in the original Persian and Arabic and you will see, for example, that when translating Baha'u'llah's Writings into English the beloved Guardian did not use present-day colloquial English but evolved a highly poetic and beautiful style, using numbers of archaic expressions reminiscent of the translations of the Bible." (From a letter dated 7 October 1973, written by the Universal House of Justice to a National Spiritual Assembly) (#370 Lights of Guidance, Page 108)  

[70] "Obviously teaching literature and books about the Faith can be written in Simple English. However, we feel that when the Sacred Writings are published the standard English translation should be used, but there would be no objection to printing alongside it the translation into Simple English which should be described as a paraphrase of the Holy Word. Thus, for the people of ... who have difficulty in comprehending standard English, the simple English version would be in the nature of an explanation of the Writings which they could understand. In the case of teaching literature in which quotations from the Writings appear, these could either be paraphrased or a simple English version could be used with the standard version printed as a footnote. This method would also provide a means whereby the people of ... could improve their knowledge and understanding of the English language."   (From a letter dated 20 September 1973 written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to a National Spiritual Assembly)   (#370 Lights of Guidance, Pages 108-109 )  

[71] ...It is, of course, permissible to translate Baha'i Writings into other languages and dialects of languages. It is also possible to simplify or paraphrase the Baha'i Writings in order to facilitate their translation into languages and dialects having small vocabularies. However, it is not permissible to publish simplifications and paraphrases of Baha'i Writings as Baha'i Scripture."   (From a letter dated 13 March 1969   written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice   to a National Spiritual Assembly)   (#370 Lights of Guidance, Page 109)  

[72] "The Universal House of Justice has requested us to advise you to base your translations on current editions of all the books referred to, if translation is involved. In each instance you should consult the original publisher and obtain a copy of the latest printing or edition to ensure that all approved correction are embodied in your translation."   (From a letter  written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice  to the National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan, May 22, 1984)  (#371 Lights of Guidance, Page 109)  

[73] "The National Spiritual Assembly which undertake the translation, usually through a committee of Baha'i translators, is the body which "authorizes" the translation, if it is approved. In some instances, if there are no Baha'i translators available, there is no objection, in principle, to employing non-Baha'is for this purpose. It is usual for the National Spiritual Assembly to appoint a Reviewing Committee, or establish some means of providing review of the completed translation. You will note from the enclosed memorandum that, with the exceptions enumerated therein, new translations of the Sacred Text into languages other than English must be made from the Guardian's English translation where it exists; and when no such translation exists, advice should be sought from the Universal House of Justice.   (From a letter   written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice   to the Spiritual Assembly of Guadeloupe, May 13, 1986)   (#367 Lights of Guidance, Pages 106-107)  

[74] In the Baha'i view, recognition of the oneness of mankind "calls for no less than the reconstruction and the demilitarization of the whole civilized world--a world organically unified in all the essential aspects of its life, its political machinery, its spiritual aspiration, its trade and finance, its script and language, and yet infinite in the diversity of the national characteristics of its federated units."     Elaborating the implications of this pivotal principle, Shoghi Effendi, the Guardian of the Baha'i Faith, commented in 1931 that: "Far from aiming at the subversion of the existing foundations of society, it seeks to broaden its basis, to remold its institutions in a manner consonant with the needs of an ever-changing world. It can conflict with no legitimate allegiances, nor can it undermine essential loyalties. Its purpose is neither to stifle the flame of a sane and intelligent patriotism in men's hearts, nor to abolish the system of national autonomy so essential if the evils of excessive centralization are to be avoided.     It does not ignore, nor does it attempt to suppress, the diversity of ethnical origins, of climate, of history, of language and tradition, of thought and habit, that differentiate the peoples and nations of the world. It calls for a wider loyalty, for a larger aspiration than any that has animated the human race. It insists upon the subordination of national impulses and interests to the imperative claims of a unified world. It repudiates excessive centralization on one hand, and disclaims all attempts at uniformity on the other. Its watchword is unity in diversity. . . ."   (The Promise of World Peace, Pages 120-126)  

[75] 193. Select ye a single language . . . adopt ye . . . a common script. v.189   Baha'u'llah enjoins the adoption of a universal language and script. His Writings envisage two stages in this process. The first stage is to consist of the selection of an existing language or an invented one which would then be taught in all the schools of the world as an auxiliary to the mother tongues. The governments of the world through their parliaments are called upon to effect this momentous enactment. The second stage, in the distant future, would be the eventual adoption of one single language and common script for all on earth.   (Notes: Kitabi-Aqdas, Page 250)  

[76] In His Writings, Baha'u'llah has given three signs for the maturity of mankind. One is the above statement concerning the decline in the fortunes of kings. Another, to which we have made a reference in the previous volume, is the transmuting of elements, the achievement of alchemy. The third, mentioned in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, is the adoption of an international auxiliary language. (The Revelation of Baha'u'llah, Volume 3, Page 157)  

[77] In each Ishraq of the Tablet of Ishraqat Baha'u'llah reveals some of His weighty counsels to mankind in general and to His followers in particular. He enjoins upon all mankind to establish the Lesser Peace, urges His followers to 'observe God's holy commandments', reminds them that the Cause of God will become victorious through 'praiseworthy deeds and upright character', addresses special counsels to the Universal House of Justice (the supreme body ordained by Baha'u'llah which came into being in 1963), affirms that its members 'have been charged with the affairs of the people', refers to it 'all matters of state', and asserts that this instruction is to be considered as 'part of the Most Holy Book'. He moreover affirms that justice is 'upheld by two pillars, reward and punishment', counsels 'everyone regarding the instruction and education of children', announces the purpose of religion to be the establishment of 'unity and concord amongst the peoples of the world', forbids His followers to make religion the cause of dissension and strife, advocates the adoption of a universal auxiliary language, and enjoins upon the Trustees of the House of Justice 'either to choose one language from among those now existing or to adopt a new one'.   (The Revelation of Baha'u'llah, Volume 4, Page 159)  

[78] It is interesting to note that in the Tablet of Bisharat Baha'u'llah enjoins upon the governments of the world to adopt the international language. These two statements, which seem to be contradictory, may be regarded as two different stages in bringing about a world auxiliary language. The first stage will be the adoption of a universal language by the governments, while the second will have to wait until such time that the Universal House of Justice has emerged as the supreme institution of the World Order of Baha'u'llah and its authority is recognized. It is only then that it can possibly reconsider the choice of the language so as to either retain the one chosen by the governments or alter it altogether.     In one of His Tablets (Nafahat-i-Quds) revealed in 'Akka, Baha'u'llah emphasizes the importance of adopting the auxiliary international language ordained in the Kitab-i-Aqdas. He states that its implementation will provide a means for safeguarding the unity of the human race and will facilitate intercourse and understanding among the peoples of the world.   (The Revelation of Baha'u'llah, Vol 4, Pages 159-160)  

[79] In this Tablet Baha'u'llah praises the Arabic language for its expressiveness and eloquence, and remarks that no other language can match its vast possibilities. He further states that God would be pleased if all the peoples of the world were to speak the Arabic language. But He does not require humanity necessarily to adopt it as the international language; rather He leaves the choice to the appropriate institutions.   (The Revelation of Baha'u'llah, Vol 4, Page 160)  

[80] It has not been possible so far to identify the person for whom the Tablet of Bisharat (Glad-Tidings) was revealed.... On the other hand, Baha'u'llah after the preamble, addresses the peoples of the world. ... In this Tablet Baha'u'llah advocates the adoption of a universal language, advises the sovereigns of the world or their ministers... to choose a new or an existing; language for the purpose,...   (The Revelation of Baha'u'llah, Vol 4, Pages 161-162)  

[81] (Kalimat-i-Firdawsiyyih- in Tablets of Baha'u'llah 57-80) urges the establishment of a universal language;   (The Revelation of Baha'u'llah, Vol 4, Page 215)  

[82] In this Tablet (Lawh-i-Dunya, Tablet of the World, in Tablets of Baha'u'llah, Pages 83-97) Baha'u'llah promulgates some of His Teachings aimed at the reconstruction of human society. These mostly reiterate teachings previously revealed, such as the establishment of an international language,   (The Revelation of Baha'u'llah, Vol 4, Page 341)  

[83] At present, a new language and a new script have been devised.' This is possibly a reference to Esperanto which was invented about four years before Baha'u'llah wrote this Epistle.   (The Revelation of Baha'u'llah, Vol 4, Page 437)  

[84] The language and script referred to on p. 138 were never communicated to anyone by Baha'u'llah.   (Marzieh Gail,   in preface to Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, Page xvi)  

[85] When Stephenson invented his locomotive engine, European mathematicians of the time, instead of opening their eyes and studying the facts, continued for years to prove to their own satisfaction that an engine on smooth rails could never pull a load, as the wheels would simply slip round and round and the train make no progress. To examples like these one might add indefinitely, both from ancient and modern history, and even from our own times. Dr. Zamenhof, the inventor of Esperanto, had to battle for his wonderful international language against the same sort of ridicule, contempt, and stupid opposition which greeted Columbus, Galvani, and Stephenson. Even Esperanto, which was given to the world so recently as 1887, has had its martyrs.   (Baha'u'llah and the New Era, Page 199)  

[86] Baha'u'llah commanded the adoption of a universal auxiliary language, and Dr. Zamenhof and others obeyed His call by devoting their lives and genius to this great task and opportunity. (Baha'u'llah and the New Era, Page 236)  

[87] A world language will either be invented or chosen from among the existing languages and will be taught in the schools of all the federated nations as an auxiliary to their mother tongue. A world script, a world literature,   (Baha'u'llah and the New Era, Page 280)  

[88] Other examples are: The equality of men and women; the universalization of knowledge (education); the creation of one universal language;   (December 9, 1920 Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Baha   to Miss Yuri Mochizuki (later Mrs. Furukawa),   the first Japanese woman to become a Baha'i)   (Japan Turn Ablaze! Page 27)  

[89] "Your institutes should not only be seats of Baha'i learning but also centres from which mass teaching and consolidation work over a large area must be inspired and conducted. The Institute is not merely a building, nor solely a place where Baha'i classes can be held for a few days. It should be the centre of complex activities which systematically assist your Assembly in the achievement of its goal in teaching and consolidation."   (From letter of the Universal House of Justice  to the National Spiritual Assembly of India: June 23, 1966)   (#1909 Lights of Guidance, Page 564)  

[90] * Encourage individual believers to adopt teaching goals for themselves.     * Carry out activities designed to deepen the believers in both a spiritual and intellectual understanding of the Cause.     * Encourage the believers to make greater use of Baha'i literature.     * Encourage the believers to enhance their command of language to assist them to understand the Baha'i writings ever more clearly.     * Develop and foster Baha'i scholarship and lend support to the Associations for Baha'i Studies.   (Six Year Plan 143-149, 1986-1992,   of The Universal House of Justice,   February 25, 1986, Page 17)  

[91] In addition to projects to be initiated at the World Centre, these ideas include:   ù Calling upon local and national Baha'i communities to sponsor a wide range of activities which will engage the attention of people from all walks of life to various topics relevant to peace, such as: the role of women, the elimination of racism, the eradication of prejudice, the promotion of education, the extension of social and economic development, the adoption of a world auxiliary language, the establishment of world government;   ù Mounting a publicity campaign which will make use of such themes as "world peace through world religion," "world peace through world education," "world peace through world language," "world peace through world law"--a campaign which could lead to discussion of these subjects in small or large gatherings, at local or national levels, and perhaps in collaboration with organizations promoting such ideas;   ù Urging the publishing within and without the Baha'i community of a wide assortment of literature, posters and other graphic materials on peace; (A Wider Horizon, Pages 31-32)  

[92] Develop and administer correspondence courses for teaching and deepening. (Six Year Plan 143-149, Page 16)  

[93] Eleventh- One language must be selected as an international medium of speech and communication. Through this means mis-understandings will be lessened, fellowship established and unity assured. ('Abdu'l-Baha In Canada, Page 42)  
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